Strathfield Draft Vision 2020 Submission
Light Pollution

Adelaide light pollution with examples of good lighting practice
by Martin Lewicki 2003. Adelaide, South Australia

Bankstown City Council
Public Lighting StrategyPDF (2.8Mb)
Index PDF (851k)
Attachments 1-3 PDF (4.2Mb)
Attachments 4-7 PDF (2.4Mb)

ABC Catalyst Program
16 October 2003 
Modern living is causing a plague of breast cancer in the Western world. Scientists don‚€™t know all the reasons why, but researchers in America are investigating a disturbing possibility. Perhaps artificial lighting can cause breast cancer.

Google Directory of Light Pollution Web Sites

Dark Skies For Northern Ireland
Why Does IT Affect Me

NASA - The Fading Milky Way

Night light linked to rise in child leukemia
2004 International Scientific Conference on Childhood Leukaemia

Dr. Barry Clark,
Astronomical Society of Victoria

Stephen M. Pauley MD FACS
Lighting for the human circadian clock: recent research indicates that lighting has become a public health issue 2004Medical Hypotheses (2004) 63, 588‚€“596

Dr Barry Clark
Lighting and Crime

Dr Paul Marchant
What works? A critical note on the evaluation of crime reduction initiativesCrime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 7(2), 7-13, 2005
For reprints, contact the author at
In this paper, Dr Marchant shows that the usual method of conducting and analysing crime prevention trials is likely to give a biased result, favouring the intervention and giving an exaggerated measure of the reliability of the result.  This is because of regression to the mean and because the usual  variable used in comparisons, the number of crimes, generally includes multiple crimes committed by individuals.   For the second reason, a necessary condition for such before-after comparisons to be valid is that they need to be done on a large number of pairs of control and treated areas rather than on just one pair as is almost universal current practice.  For these reasons, the results of virtually all existing trials, including the Painter trials at Dudley and Stoke-on-Trent and the evaluation of street lighting effects on crime by Farrington and Welsh, appear to be biased and unreliable. 

Dark Campus Programs Reduce Vandalism and Save Money,

The Marine and Coastal Community Network

NSW National Park and Wildlife Service
Recovery Plan for the Mountain Pygmy-possum(Burramys parvus)

Bryant W. Buchanan
Observed and potential effects of artificial light on the behavior, ecology, and evolution of nocturnal frogs

Winslow R. Briggs
Plant photoreceptors: proteins that perceive information vital for plant development from the light environment
The Urban Wildlands Group

Declaration of Stuttgart
Declaration of Genk

This note from Fabio Falchi in Italy

I'm happy to tell you that two new laws against LP are now enforced in
Italy. They are the Umbria and Abruzzo regional laws. Both impose a 0 cd/klm
light intensity limit at and above the horizon (Fully Shielded) for all new
fixtures, private or public alike, over all their territories (no zoning, an
old concept). One of them in particular (Abruzzo region) introduces a new
step in controlling LP by imposing a maximum growth in the municipalities
electric consumption for external lighting. The maximum yearly growth is 1%
of the consumption at the law enforcement. This is a major step toward what
should be the zero growth of a sane ecosystem. In fact, up to now we
focalised our forces to have better and less polluting fixtures, but the
less polluting fixtures of all is the not installed one.

This limit on the consumption is a spur to a better global efficiency. If I
need more lights for a new street, and this will exceed the 1% limit growth,
I should intervene on some old and less efficient fixtures to lower their

Up to now in Italy there are 13 regional laws over 20 total regions. 5 laws
impose FS fixtures all over their territories, 1 imposes FS over all their
territory for the great part of the implants, 3 have a 3% upward flux ratio
limit, 1 has very high limits based on a standard norm developed by the
Italian institute of norms, 3 are only declarations of intent, with no
number or limits. The best thing of all is that the most respected laws are
those with the zero limit!

Clear and dark skies,

Fabio Falchi